After your lender repossesses your car, they will sell it and apply the sale price to the amount remaining on your loan. In most cases, there is still a deficiency remaining on your loan after applying the sale proceeds. More often than not, your lender will then sue you for that deficiency. If that happens, here are some possible defenses to the deficiency lawsuit:
Statute of limitations. In most Minnesota debt collection cases, such as credit cards, the statute of limitations is six years. However, the statute of limitations for a repossession deficiency claim is four years. If the creditor brings the deficiency lawsuit over four years after you made your last payment, the statute of limitations on the claim may have passed.
Incomplete or ineffective assignment of the loan. Like credit card debts, many repossession deficiency accounts are sold to third-party debt buyers. The debt buyer must be able to provide a complete and detailed chain of title of ownership of your account. Often, the chain of title is either incomplete or does not specifically identify your account, but rather a large batch of accounts.
The sale of your car after repossession was not commercially reasonable. The general rule is that every aspect of the sale of a car after repossession must be commercially reasonable. This essentially means that the creditor must act in good faith and use its best efforts to get a fair price for your car.
The lender failed to send you the required pre- and post-sale notices. The pre-sale letter must tell you when, where, and how the vehicle will be sold. It must also tell you how much money you have to pay to get the vehicle back. The post-sale letter must tell you how much the vehicle was sold for and explain whether you still owe money on the loan. Failure to send these letters may prevent the lender from collecting a deficiency.
The creditor accepted your car as a full satisfaction of the loan. Occasionally, creditors tell people that if they turn over their car voluntarily, they will not pursue the person for a deficiency. Creditors may later deny making this promise. Some courts have held that promising not to pursue you for a deficiency if you turn over your car voluntarily bars that creditor from pursuing a deficiency.
It's also possible that the creditor may not have followed the proper procedures when they repossessed your car. This may allow you to bring a counterclaim against them in the deficiency lawsuit. While a counterclaim is not technically a defense to a deficiency lawsuit, a valid counterclaim can often lead to a reasonable settlement of the deficiency claims.